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Some Vernacular Design Principles (& their application today) ... cultural architecture in America. This principle can also be leveraged at a regional level for very high scale global architectures. Likewise, application components and applications themselves should expose well-defined interfaces for their collaborators to use, rather than allowing their state to be modified directly. In a monolithic application, we can apply the single responsibility principle at a high level to the layers in the application. This separation helps ensure that the business model is easy to test and can evolve without being tightly coupled to low-level implementation details. Application Architecture Principles The general application related rules and guidelines, intended to be enduring and seldom amended, that inform and support the way in which an organization sets about fulfilling its mission. An enterprises should offer its services through online and multi-channel interfaces that are rich, intuitive, responsive, easy to use and visually appealing. An example set of Architecture Principles following this template is given in 20.6 Example Set of Architecture Principles. Non-proliferation of Technology. The ArchiMate Principles viewpoint, an example of which is shown in Figure 5, depicts principles, their dependencies, and the goals they realize in a graphical way: The Principles viewpoint allows the analyst or designer to model the principles that are relevant to the design problem at hand, including the goals that motivate these principles. Rationale: The more a user has to understand the underlying technology, the less productive that user is. Some examples of violations of this principle include: Classes responsible for saving themselves (such as the Active Record pattern). Data as an Asset. The IT architecture must be planned to reduce the impact of technological changes in the business. One could argue that it’s a subset of software architecture that primarily focuses on individual applications in contrast to, for example, enterprise architecture, which encompasses all the software inside a company including the interactions between different applications. Generally, these principles will guide you toward building applications out of discrete components that are not tightly coupled to other parts of your application, but rather communicate through explicit interfaces or messaging systems. The direction of dependency within the application should be in the direction of abstraction, not implementation details. If an outside actor wants to manipulate the state of the object, it should do so through a well-defined function (or property setter), rather than having direct access to the private state of the object. Rationale The independence of technological applications allows them to be d… ~ Howard Aiken. Technical diversity will be controlled in order to reduce complexity. The Baltimore rowhouse is a good example of thrifty architecture. Provide the right Interfaces for users to consume the data. Business logic should be kept in the application core project, where it can be easily tested and can evolve independently from other responsibilities. Each bounded context should ideally be free to choose its own names for concepts within it, and should have exclusive access to its own persistence store. Dependency inversion is a key part of building loosely coupled applications, since implementation details can be written to depend on and implement higher-level abstractions, rather than the other way around. Such types in .NET are sometimes referred to as Plain Old CLR Objects (POCOs), because they do not need to inherit from a particular base class or implement a particular interface. Examples of concept principles that are in some organization labeled as architecture principles: 1. The principle of Least Effort. This principle asserts that software should be separated based on the kinds of work it performs. At some point, a change in requirements will require changing this behavior. Proper use of encapsulation helps achieve loose coupling and modularity in application designs, since objects and packages can be replaced with alternative implementations so long as the same interface is maintained. The 12 Principles of Application Architecture for Digital Business and IoT Published: 29 January 2015 ID: G00263480 Analyst(s): Yefim Natis, Ross Altman Summary Digital business and the Internet of Things demand a new level of excellence in enterprise architecture principles and practices. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed. Applying the dependency inversion principle allows A to call methods on an abstraction that B implements, making it possible for A to call B at runtime, but for B to depend on an interface controlled by A at compile time (thus, inverting the typical compile-time dependency). The requirement that classes have any of the above features or behaviors adds coupling between the types to be persisted and the choice of persistence technology, making it more difficult to adopt new data access strategies in the future. Modern stack? At run time, the flow of program execution remains unchanged, but the introduction of interfaces means that different implementations of these interfaces can easily be plugged in. Business Architecture: Contract-Measure Catalog, Driver-Goal-Objective Catalog, Location Catalog, Organization-Actor Catalog, Process-Event-Control-Product Catalog, Role Catalog, Service-Function Catalog. A guiding principle when developing is Separation of Concerns. Specifically, the only situation in which the object should change is if the manner in which it performs its one responsibility must be updated. Standardization kills chaos and complexity 7. But also the other way around: Standardization kills diver… It is a real, measurable … Application and user location diagrams . Here is my take on some of the key IT architectural principles an application or a service offering should follow. Persistence-specific required attributes. It is common to have sets of principles form a hierarchy, in that segment principles will be informed by, and elaborate on, the principles at the enterprise level. Make this construct the single authority over this behavior, and have any other part of the application that requires this behavior use the new construct. Different parts of an application should use encapsulation to insulate them from other parts of the application. The behavior responsible for choosing which items to format should be kept separate from the behavior responsible for formatting the items, since these behaviors are separate concerns that are only coincidentally related to one another. Putting data in one place isn’t enough … Bounded contexts are a central pattern in Domain-Driven Design. Open-source projects are great for getting started and serve as a good source for architecture reference. Communication between bounded contexts occurs through programmatic interfaces, rather than through a shared database, which allows for business logic and events to take place in response to changes that take place.

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